Pycnogenol aperçu de plus de quarante ans de recherche scientifique

Introduction

Tabel 1. Aanbevolen dosering pycnogenol per aandoening

Suppletie en veiligheid

Pycnogenol is één van de best onderzochte voedingssupplementen en is uitvoerig toxicologisch getest. Deze testen hebben aangetoond dat pycnogenol volkomen veilig is, zelfs als pycnogenol in hoge doseringen gedurende langere tijd wordt ingenomen. Er zijn geen bijwerkingen bekend uit klinische studies, afgezien van incidentele meldingen van milde bijwerkingen die ook bij het gebruik van een placebo worden gezien zoals duizeligheid, hoofdpijn en misselijkheid. Pycnogenol gaat niet gepaard met een verhoogde bloedingsneiging en heeft geen invloed op de INR (International Normalized Ratio).(95) Er zijn geen contra-indicaties bekend voor pycnogenol. Voorzichtigheidshalve wordt aan vrouwen aangeraden de eerste drie maanden van de zwangerschap geen pycnogenol te gebruiken. Vanwege het ontbreken van veiligheidsgegevens is het ook beter dat kinderen onder 6 jaar geen pycnogenol innemen. Het advies is om pycnogenol bij de maaltijd in te nemen vanwege de iets adstringerende smaak, en de dosis verdeeld over de dag in te nemen. Het beste is pycnogenol niet te laat op de dag in te nemen; sommige mensen kunnen dan moeite hebben met inslapen.

Interacties

  • Pycnogenol (lokaal) gaat orale mucositis door chemotherapie bij kinderen tegen, vooral in combinatie met vitamine E.(96)
  • In-vitro onderzoek suggereert dat pycnogenol beschermt tegen periodontitis door oxidatieve stress als gevolg van roken.(97)
  • Pycnogenol kan bijwerkingen van radiotherapie en chemotherapie verminderen.( 98)
  • Pycnogenol beschermt mogelijk tegen toxiciteit van cisplatine (dierstudies).(99,100)
  • Aangebracht op de huid beschermt pycnogenol tegen dermatotoxiciteit van hexavalent chroom (dierstudie).(101)

Références

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  33. Errichi BM et al. Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with pycnogenol in a twelve month study. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):21-7.
  34. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, et al. Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol. Angiology 2005;56(6):699-705.
  35. Belcaro G et al. Postpartum varicose veins: supplementation with pycnogenol or elastic compression- a 12-month follow-up. Int J Angiol. 2014;29 may.
  36. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol in postpartum symptomatic hemorrhoids. Minerva Ginecol. 2014;66(1):77-84.
  37. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes. Phytother Res. 2010;24(3):438-444.62.
  38. Pütter M et al. Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin and pycnogenol. Thromb Res. 1999;95:155-161.
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  40. Belcaro G et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis in longhaul flights with pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2004;10:373-377.
  41. Rodriquez P et al. Recurrence of retinal vein thrombosis with pycnogenol or aspirin supplementation: a registry study. Panminerva Med. 2015;57(3):121-5.
  42. Zibadi S et al. Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. Nutr Res. 2008;28:315-320.
  43. Hosseini S et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr Res. 2001;21(9):1251-1260.
  44. Cesarone MR et al. Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants-a controlled study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010;15:41-46.
  45. Rezzani R et al. Effects of melatonin and pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 2010;55:1373-1380.
  46. Liu X et al. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract,in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 2004;75:2505-2513.
  47. Peng Q et al. Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factoralpha- induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:834–841.
  48. Watson RR. Pycnogenol and cardiovascular health. Evidence Based Integr Med. 2003;1:27-32.
  49. Sahebkar A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pycnogenol on plasma lipids. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2014;19(3):244-55.
  50. Guerrero L et al. Serum metabolites of proanthocyanidinadministered rats decrease lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24(12):2092-9.
  51. Enseleit F et al. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a doubleblind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(13):1589-97.
  52. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol and Centella asiatica in the management of asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression. Int Angiol. 2015;34(2):150-7.
  53. Belcaro G et al. Investigation of Pycnogenol® in combination with coenzyme Q10 in heart failure patients (NYHA II/III). Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):21-5.
  54. Stuard S et al. Kidney function in metabolic syndrome may be improved with pycnogenol. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(S1- 2):27-32.
  55. Ho JN et al. Pycnogenol supplementation promotes lipolysis via activation of cAMP-dependent PKA in ob/ob mice and primary-cultured adipocytes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2014;60(6):429-35.
  56. Schönlau F et al. Pycnogenol for diabetic retinopathy. A review. Int Ophthal. 2002;24:161-171.
  57. Kim YJ et al. Pycnogenol modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in high glucose-treated renal tubular cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(9):2196-201.
  58. Belcaro G et al. Diabetic ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2006;12(3):318-23.
  59. Belcaro G et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with Pycnogenol. The SVOS (San Valentino Osteo-arthrosis Study). Evaluation of signs, symptoms, physical performance and vascular aspects. Phytother Res. 2008;22(4):518-23.
  60. Farid R et al. Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Nutr Res. 2007;27:692-697.
  61. Peng YJ et al. Pycnogenol attenuates the inflammatory and nitrosative stress on joint inflammation induced by urate crystals. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(4):765-74.
  62. Vinciguerra G et al. Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013;53(6):644-54.
  63. Vinciguerra Get al. Cramps and muscular pain: prevention with pycnogenol in normal subjects, venous patients, athletes, claudicants and in diabetic microangiopathy. Angiology 2006;57:331-9.
  64. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol improvements in asthma management. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3Suppl1):57-64.
  65. Wilson D et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Phytother Res. 2010;24(8):1115-9.
  66. Stefanescu M et al. Pycnogenol efficacy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Phytother Res. 2001;15:698-704.
  67. Suzuki N et al. French maritime pine bark extract significantly lowers the requirement for analgesic medication in dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. J Reprod Med. 2008;53(5):338-46.72..
  68. Kohama T et al. Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea: an open clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2004;49(10):828-32.
  69. Maia H Jr et al. The effect of pycnogenol on patients with dysmenorrhea using low-dose oral contraceptives. Int J Womens Health. 2014;6:1019-22.
  70. Kohama T et al. Effect of French maritime pine bark extract on endometriosis as compared with leuprorelin acetate. J Reprod Med. 2007;52(8):703-8.
  71. Maia J Jr et al. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis- related pain. Int J Womens Health. 2013;6:35-9.
  72. Yang HM et al. A randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol. 2007;86:978–985.
  73. Errichi S et al. Supplementation with pycnogenol improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition. Panminerva Med. 2011;53:65-70.
  74. Kohama T et al. Effect of low-dose French maritime pine bark extract on climacteric syndrome in 170 perimenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Reprod Med. 2013;58(1-2):39-46.
  75. Kohama T et al. Pycnogenol alleviates pain associated with pregnancy. Phytother Res. 2006;20:232-234.
  76. Aoki H et al. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol ® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother Res. 2012;26(2):204-7.
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  79. Trebatická J et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15(6):329-35.
  80. Dvoráková M et al. Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). Nutr Neurosci. 2007;10(3-4):151-7.
  81. Dvoráková M et al. The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Redox Rep. 2006;11(4):163-72.
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  83. Belcaro G et al. Improvement of common cold with Pycnogenol: a winter registry study. Panminerva Med. 2014;56(4):301-8.
  84. Belcaro G et al. Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2008;56(5 Suppl):3-9.
  85. Luzzi R et al. Pycnogenol supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3Suppl1):75-82.
  86. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals aged 35-55. J Neurosurg Sci. 2014;58(4):239-48.
  87. Ryan J et al. An examination of the effects of antioxidant pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum liquid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. J Psychopharm. 2008;2:553-562.
  88. Luzzi R et al. Improvement in symptoms and cochlear flow with pycnogenol in patients with Meniere’s disease and tinnitus. Minerva Med. 2014;105:245-54.
  89. Saliou C. Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30:154-160.
  90. Marini A et al. Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;25(2):86-92.
  91. Blazsó G et al. Pycnogenol accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation. Phytother Res. 2004;18(7):579-81.
  92. Gupta AK et al. The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:1048-65.
  93. Kim YJ et al. The anti-melanogenic effect of pycnogenol by its anti-oxidative actions. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(7):2466- 71.
  94. Belcaro G et al. Improvement in signs and symptoms in psoriasis patients with Pycnogenol® supplementation. Panminerva Med. 2014;56(1):41-8.
  95. Oliff H. Scientific and clinical monograph on Pycnogenol. The American Botanical Council: USA; 2009.
  96. Khurana H et al. An evaluation of vitamin E and pycnogenol in children suffering from oral mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. Oral Dis. 2013;19(5):456-64.
  97. Figuero E et al. Oxidant/antioxidant interactions of nicotine, coenzyme Q10, pycnogenol and phytoestrogens in oral periosteal fibroblasts and MG63 osteoblasts. Steroids 2006;71:1062-1072.
  98. Belcaro G et al. Pycnogenol may alleviate adverse effects in oncologic treatment. Panminerva Med. 2008 Sep;50(3):227- 34.
  99. Ko JW et al. Protective effects of pine bark extract against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Lab Anim Res 2014:30(4):174-180.
  100. Aydin B et al. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of pycnogenol on rats treated with cisplatin. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;142(3):638-50.
  101. Lee IC et al. Protective effects of pine bark extract on hexavalent chromium-induced dermatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2012;26(10):1534-40.
  102. Cesarone MR et al. Prevention of edema in long flights with Pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2005;11(3):289-294.
  103. Saliou C et al. Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30(2):154-60.
  104. Marini A et al. Pycnogenol effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;25(2):86-92

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Pycnogenol aperçu de plus de quarante ans de recherche scientifique
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